Our onsite state of the art surgical center provides convenient surgical treatment for our patients. Vitreoretinal surgeries include repair of retinal detachments, macular holes, epiretinal membrane, diabetic retinal detachment and bleeding and floater removal.


Intravitreal injections are used to administer medications to treat a variety of retinal conditions. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion are the most common conditions treated with intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs. Intravitreal steroids are used in some eyes with diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion and uveitis. The anti-VEGF drugs and steroids help to reduce fluid leakage associated with these disorders. Antibiotic, anti fungal and antiviral drugs are also used to treat patients with infections in the eye such as endophthalmitis and retinitis. In some cases an injection is used to insert a small gas bubble to aid repair of a retinal detachment.


Fluorescein Angiography is a diagnostic procedure, which uses a special camera to take a series of photographs of the retina, the light sensitive tissue in the back of the eye. A special water-soluble dye (Fluorescein) is injected into a vein in the arm. The dye travels through the veins and into the arteries, which circulate throughout the body. As the dye passes through the blood vessels of the retina, a special camera flashes a blue light into the eye and takes multiple photographs of the retina.

If the blood vessels are abnormal, the dye may leak into the retina or stain blood vessels. Damage to the lining underneath the retina or the appearance of abnormal new blood vessels growing beneath the retina may also be revealed. The precise location of these abnormalities can be determined by a careful interpretation of the fluorescein angiogram by your physician.

Indocyanine is a green dye, which fluoresces with invisible infrared light; it requires a special digital camera that is sensitive to these light rays. The Indocyanine Green Angiogram is often better for studying the deeper choroidal blood vessel layer. Certain eye disorders are usually imaged with the fluorescein. Indocyanine is especially helpful when there is a leakage of blood, which makes interpretation of fluorescein studies difficult.

Both of these tests are considered safe and serious side effects from these tests uncommon. However, there is possibility that there may be a reaction to the dyes.


Optical Coherence Tomography is a new technology, which can perform micron resolution imaging in biological tissues. The procedure of the OCT is similar to the ultrasound except that light is used rather than light acoustic or radio waves. Retinal thickness is a vital consideration in the assessment of many macular diseases. The OCT can be particularly useful in tracking any imperfection in the retina and optic nerve. OCT angiography can evaluate retinal blood flow without using a dye.


Laser treatment can prevent visual loss in variety of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and retinal tears. Laser is usually not painful and only required topical numbing drops place right before the treatment.


This type of laser is often referred to as "cold laser" and is most frequently used for variant forms of wet macular degenerartion or central serous retinopathy.  An intravenous medicine is administered in our office followed by laser light application to reduce leakage from abnormal retinal blood vessels.


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